Kolaviron/Natural Bioflavonoid (Garcinia kola seeds (rat study)
Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1-induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative damage in rats by kolaviron, a natural biflavonoid of Garcinia kola seeds.
Farombi, E O 1; Adepoju, B F 1; Ola-Davies, O E 2; Emerole, G O 1
The chemopreventive effects of kolaviron, a natural antioxidant biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola, on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative damage was investigated in rats.
Kolaviron administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg once a day for the first 2 weeks and then 100 mg/kg twice a day for the last 4 weeks of AFB1 (2 mg/kg, single dose, intraperitoneal) treatment reduced the AFB1-increased activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltransferase ([gamma]-GT) by 62%, 56% and 72% respectively.
Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and lipid hydroperoxide (LHP) accumulation were observed in the livers of AFB1-treated rats. Kolaviron significantly reduced the AFB1-induced MDA and LHP formation. Vitamins C and E were protective in reducing the increase in the activities of AST, ALT and [gamma]-GT as well as lipid peroxidation caused by AFB1 (P
Administration of rats with kolaviron alone resulted in significant elevation in the activities of glutathione S-transferase, uridyl glucuronosyl transferase and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase by 2.45-, 1.62- and 1.38-folds respectively.
In addition, kolaviron attenuated the AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of these enzymes (P0.05). Co-treatment of rats intraperitoneally with kolaviron (500 mg/kg) 30 min before and 30 min after AFB1 (1 mg/kg) administration inhibited the induction of MNPCEs by AFB1 (P
While vitamin C was effective in reducing AFB1-induced MNPCEs formation, vitamin E did not elicit any antigenotoxic response. These results indicate kolaviron as effective chemopreventive agent against AFB1-induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative stress.
Thus kolaviron may qualify for clinical trial in combating the menace of aflatoxicosis in endemic areas of aflatoxin contamination of foods.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 14(3):207-214, June 2005.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol, 2016 Jun 1;27(4):363-70. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0075.
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Kolaviron: Mechanisms of Action
Samuel A Onasanwo, Rume A Rotu PMID: 26812784 DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0075
Background: Major attention has been on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit or reverse abnormal conditions caused by nociceptive and inflammatory stimuli. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethno-medicine and traditional hospitality like in the treatment of inflammation, colds, bronchitis, bacterial, and viral infections. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed, and the most prominent of them is kolaviron (Garcinia bioflavonoid), which has been suggested to have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials. The aim of this experiment is to explore the mechanisms of action of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of kolaviron.
Methods: The probable mechanisms of action of kolaviron were assessed by using naloxone, prazosin, and atropine to investigate the involvement of adrenergic, opioidergic, and cholinergic systems, respectively, using tail flick, the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking, and carrageenan-induced paw edema models. Also, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to analyze the level of inflammation.
Results: In the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, pretreatment with naloxone, prazosin, and atropine significantly reversed the antinociception effects of kolaviron (200 mg/kg) when compared with control and kolaviron groups. In the formalin-induced paw licking test in mice, there was a significant decrease on the antinociceptive effects of kolaviron in the late phase when compared with the control, while the pretreatment with naloxone and prazosin significantly reversed the antinociception of kolaviron but atropine did not have any significant decrease when compared with the kolaviron group. In the tail flick latency assay in rats, pretreatment with naloxone and prazosin significantly reversed the antinociception of kolaviron but atropine; however, did not have any significant increase when compared with the control and kolaviron groups. The result of the study also shows a highly significant inhibition of paw edema in the carrageenan-induced receiving kolaviron when compared with the vehicle carrageenan-induced groups. Histological staining also showed that kolaviron significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the paw tissues.
Conclusions: Kolaviron possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, both centrally and peripherally, which justifies its folkloric use to relieve pain and inflammation. It may be exerting its effects through mechanisms that involve opioidergic and adrenergic systems, and may not involve the cholinergic system.